Injury and displacement among older adults following Hurricane Katrina NR 0.437 MMWR, 199219 Because a tropical cyclone is one of the few disasters that can be forecast, monitored, and measured, an investigation on the effect of various types of tropical cyclones on emergent health care services is warranted. Zane, 201180 Hurricane Andrew, 1992 All covariates, with the exception of World Bank developmental level which was highly correlated with per capita GDP were subsequently included in a multinomial logistic regression model to assess relative risk of mortality at a given level as compared to events with no deaths. 1130 Examines damage, mortality, and displacement in Dade County, Florida Pre- Facility, ER and outpatient 14 1985Hurricanes Elena & Gloria, “The last cyclone that had really catastrophic effects on Bangladesh, in terms of the loss of human life, would have been in 2007. NR 35 iii. This is especially important when we're talking about 28 (7.6%) Florida Medical Examiners Comm. Hurricane Ike,Texas, 2008 Table 7: Summary of Primary Research Articles with Injury Findings (n=27) Hurricane Andrew, 1992 x MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1989 38(44):754, 759-62. Age was associated with increased mortality risk in numerous studies where both children 20,21,22, and older adults 22,57,58,60, experienced disproportionate mortality. Response Team and Louisiana coroners In less developed countries females face a greater mortality risk 21,22. 184 cuts/lacerations/puncture wounds (49%), 49 sprain/strain/ fracture (13%), 46 contusion/ impact (12%), 24 animal/insect bite (6%), 23 falls (6%), 23 rashes (6%), 15 crush injuries (4%), 10 burns (3%), 1 electrocution (<1%), and 62 other (17%). Injuries to the elbows/wrist/hand/finger (rate = 38.9; 95% CI = 28.3-52.2), face/trunk/shoulder/upper arm (rate = 31.8; 95% CI = 22.3-44.1), and leg/foot/toe (rate =151.2; 95% CI = 129.4-175.7). Hurricane Katrina, 2005 iv. NR Morbidity of Hurricane Elena. 1995;88(6):615-8. Decade Brodie, 200645 Hurricane Hugo, 1999 6 4 Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Hurricanes and Hospital Emergency-Room Visits -- Mississippi, Rhode Island, Connecticut. At the same time, they are surrounded by high pressure. 860 184 cuts/lacerations/puncture wounds (49%), 49 sprain/strain/ fracture (13%), 46 contusion/ impact (12%), 24 animal/insect bite (6%), 23 falls (6%), 23 rashes (6%), 15 crush injuries (4%), 10 burns (3%), 1 electrocution (<1%), and 62 other (17%). NR 484 In the Eastern Pacific basin the season begins two weeks early on May 15th. x Smith CM, Graffeo CS. x What are Chain Elongation and Chain Termination? Review county level mortality data to characterize causes of death and storm impact. 2 vehicle accidents, 1 intracranial hemorrhage Incidence of diagnoses varied by age, sex, race and care seeking location. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2010;(4)4:62-5. RRR (95%CI) Data on the impact of cyclones were compiled using two methods, a historical review of cyclone events and a systematic literature review of publications relating to the human impacts of cyclones. Hurricane Katrina, 2005 Shultz JM, Russel J, Espinel Z. Not reported Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters Emergency Events Database (CRED EM-DAT). Reported by NHC Outpatient medical record review This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. 172 The relative risk for injury was 6.86 (95 CI: 5.98–7.87) in the two week period after the storm as compared to the two weeks prior to the event. Katrina, 2005 Location was a risk factor for injury in many reports, including administrative unit or location relative to storm path 42, within a city 24,25,44, and being outdoors 25. 71 cut/stabbed (55%), 41 blunt trauma (32%) 13 falls (10%), 3 crushed (2%) and 1 drowning (<1%). 8 drowning, 2 Hit by falling tree limb Additional attention to preparedness and early warning, particularly in Asia, can lessen the impact of future cyclones. Smith, 199631 Inconsistencies and errors were common in data from different sources that called into question the reliability of available data. Even a high tide can flow in to the village flooding homes and latrines. 36.80% MMWR, 200650 Accessed November 29, 2009. NR Tropical cyclones regularly affect the coastlines of most of Earth 's major bodies of water. Hurricane Isabel, 2003 Range Combs DL, Parish RG, McNabb SJ, et al. Gagnon, 200540 Documents facility-based surveillance efforts of post-hurricane effects 2: Tropical cyclone reporting frequency, 1980 -2009 (n=1080), Fig. Not reported 136 N In total, the 1.9% (n=20) of events with mortality >1000 accounted for 83.9% of all cyclone deaths, suggesting that cyclone mortality is concentrated in infrequent and extreme events. 309 Effects of Tornadoes N NR NR 13.9% Waring S, Zakos-Feliberti A, Wood R, et al. Centers for Disease Control. NR NR 12 The Geographical Journal. Studies that included gender breakdown for cyclone-related deaths, most of which are accounts of cyclone events in the United States, consistently reported greater proportion of male as compared to female deaths; when aggregated, males accounted for 59% of reported US hurricane deaths. Deaths by Sex Louisiana 8 blunt trauma, 4 asphyxiation, 2 drownings, 1 decapitation 10 2007;37(4):482-501. NR 1.41 (0.49-4.04) Brunkard, 200858 Hurricane Katrina, 2005 x NR MMWR, 198916 Review of injuries that presented at the Houstan, Texas, Reliant Park clinic. NR 3870 in the year following the storm 865 open wounds (55%), 196 sprains (13%) 148 contusions (9%), 122 superficial wounds (8%), 83 insect/animal bites (5%), 81 fractures (5%), 29 foreign bodies (2%), 23 burns (1%), 10 head injuries (1%), and 5 poisoning (<1%). Facility, inpatient only 7 Americas 73% (40/55) of deaths were among males. Medical examiner/corner reports of deaths associated with Hurricane Hugo—Puerto Rico. These comprise spiralling winds that are usually centred in areas that have low atmospheric pressures. Hurricane Andrew, 1992 Originally accessed May 24, 2007 with subsequent update on September 4, 2009. The next order of high mortality events with 10,000-15,000 deaths included Hurricane Mitch (Honduras, 1998) and a cyclone in Bangladesh (1985) and there were 16 events with 1,000-9,999 deaths over the 30 years. Accessed November 29, 2009. 8 7 motor vehicle accidents, 4 falling objects, 3 fires, 1 CO poisoning, 1 fall. x Cut/pierce/stab (20%), fall (20%), struck by/against/ crushed (11%), bite/sting (9%), and motor-vehicle crash (8%). To assess risk factors for cyclone-related mortality the following categories were used: none (0 deaths), low (1-9 deaths), medium (10-99 deaths) and high (≥100 deaths). Reference NR 0 Hurricane Katrina, 2005 MMWR, 200034 69 Population based post-disaster assessment. For cyclone impacts reported by EM-DAT, zeroes were treated as missing values because they were used as placeholders and their inclusion in the analysis could contribute to the under estimation of tsunami impacts. 198 (53.5%) of Health, 86 trauma or injury, 45 non-accidental, 15 CO poisoning, 9 drowning, 7 burns/inhalation, 13 carbon monoxide exposure, 8 cardiovascular failure, 28 multiple causes. 0.003 Post-cyclone Injury management Storm mortality by select country and event characteristics (N = 1,080) Ragan, 200860 Mortality and Injury. Uscher-Pines, 200963 0.999 (.999-.999) 17* MMWR, 198916 of Forensic Science (Alabama) By decade, 42,5% (n=459) of events occurred in the 2000s, 29.6% (n=320) in the 1990s, and 27.9% (n=301) in the 1980s. <.001 Cyclone's centre often known as an eye, which is the area of lowest atmospheric pressure. Between Sept 12-Oct 11 (after active surveillance) there were 5,907 visits for injuries including 497 (8%) major and 5,410 (92%) minor injuries. Medical Examiner, Puerto Rico 3 All country-level variables were found to be significantly associated with mortality. 1049** (97.1%) Jani, 200646 Fig. Residents had a higher proportion of falls and motor vehicle accidents and a lower proportion of unintentional injuries as compared to relief workers. i. Carbon monoxide poisoning after hurricane Katrina--Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi, August-September 2005. Mean Nonfatal injuries following Hurricane Katrina—New Orleans, Louisiana, 2005. ⭐Main effects of tropical cyclones include heavy rain, strong wind, large storm surges near landfall, and tornadoes. ER Depts, Mississippi 147 (38.4%) The primary cause of cyclone-related mortality is drowning; in developed countries male gender was associated with increased mortality risk, whereas females experienced higher mortality in less developed countries. The storms have caused significant destruction and loss of human life, resulting in about 2 million deaths since the 19th century. When the median and 5% trimmed mean for injuries were applied to the remaining 568 events with fatalities but no injury reporting, it was estimated that between 28,400 and 113,600 unreported cyclone related injuries may have occurred between 1980 and 2009. Causes It is caused by a combination of strong winds driving water onshore and the lower atmospheric pressure in a tropical cyclone. Key words used included natural hazard(s), natural disaster(s), volcano(es), volcanic, volcanic eruption, seismic event, earthquake(s), cyclone(s), typhoon(s), hurricane(s), tropical storm(s), flood(s), flooding, mudslide(s), tsunami(s), and tidal wave(s). 2 x 30 Sullivent, 200653 South Med J. x NR Future studies on the human impacts of cyclones should be focused in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific, the regions where the majority of cyclone impacts occur. 1.03 (0.34-.3.06) 30 Injury data were available in 397 (36.8%) events, with a total of 290,654 cyclone-related injuries documented. NR NR 12 cause unreported, 3 CO poisoning, 1 electrocution The NHC database included information on all cyclones in the Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico. 1999 cyclone in Orissa, India Florida Medical Examiner Offices Examines hurricane-related mortality risk Not reported Assesses cause of death and factors associated with mortality in Puerto Rico. 0.025 Experiences of hurricane Katrina evacuees in Houston shelters: implications for future planning. Review of injury frequency before and after the hurricane 13 Hurricane Elena, 1985 In: Hogan DE, Burstein JL, eds. Ike, 2008 No matter what type of cyclone you are talking about, there is always a great potential for damage to human life, livelihoods and the environment. 213 1995;1:137–54. 0.073 Zane, 201180 x Essay on Leadership: Introduction, Functions, Types, Features and Importance. 15 10-99 deaths vs. no deaths Hurricane Isabel, 2003 Typhoon Saomei, China, 2006 The mortality was greatest in the SEARO regions while only 8% of deaths occurred in the AMRO region despite accounting for 37% of all events occurring there. 2007;84(2):142-52. 3 Puerto Rico and S Carolina Medical Examiners & MMWRs Kim H, Baik Han S, Kim J et al. Male Reference x 10-99 deaths (n = 370) 26.20% 693 Not reported 60% There is no guarantee . These storms are seen frequently at the far end of this summer. 650 (2009). Tropical cyclones cause heavy rainfall and landslides. 2.13 (0.80-5.66) Lew, 1996***28 Hurricane Isabel-related mortality—Virginia, 2003. In particular, improvements in forecasting, early warning systems, evacuation and shelter procedures, and public education on safety precautions and post-impact hazards could reduce cyclone-related morbidity and mortality in future decades. Disasters, planning, and development: managing natural hazards to reduce loss. Spatial analysis of destruction caused by Hurricane 07B Sullivent EE 3rd, West CA, Noe RS, et al. 24 Describes effectiveness of post-hurricane surveillance activities in three counties of Mississippi Describe deaths indirectly caused by the hurricane Ghosh TS, Patnaik JL, Vogt RL. 0 1049 The overall impact of cyclones on human populations is summarized in Table 2. 0.999 (.999-.999) 33% of ER visits (n=59,398) were injury related; soft tissue injuries accounted for 28% of ER visits (~16,631) and the majority of injuries. J Black Studies. Not applicable 7 Lacerations, puncture wounds, chain saw injuries, burns, gasoline aspiration, gastrointestinal complaints, stings, and spouse abuse were found to increase following the storm. 430 Hurricane Hugo, 1989 Acad Emerg Med. x 6 Injuries accounted for 15.7% and 23.7% of visits at civilian and military free care sites; among service members, injuries accounted for 36.2% of visits. One search was done for all the five natural hazards described in this set of papers. 8 New York: UNDP, 2009. The female mortality rate was 71/1000 as compared to 15/1000 among males ages 20-44. Soc Sci Med. x The Human Impact of Tropical Cyclones: a Historical Review of Events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review, Review of injury frequency before and after the hurricane, Analysis of hurricane-related emergency room visits resulting in Mississippi, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, Examines of risk factors for mortality among island populations. DeSalvo, 200755 1.01 (.97-1.06) 89 records were visits related to the storm, 73 were injuries. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002:179–86. Shelter beds should be created to check soil erosion and speed of winds. High mortality events, with death tolls in excess of 1000, occur in less than 2% of events and more than two-thirds of all cyclone deaths between 1980 and 2009 occurred in two events (Cyclone Gorky, Bangladesh 1991 and Cyclone Nargis, Myanmar 2008). 7 electrocutions 2002 Sep:3-9. Hurricane Katrina, 2005 24 Americas Reference Mortality among females was higher than males for all age groups; for females, mortality increased with age. 6.06 (1.95-18.72) Disasters. Noji EK. 7 MMWR, 198613 1.93 (0.73-5.09) 48 Keenan, 200438 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000 49(17):369-72. 64 (41.3%) Tropical cyclones occurring during summer season from July-August causes heavy loss of crops, households, lives and property. Injuries accounted for 15.7% and 23.7% of visits at civilian and military free care sites; among service members, injuries accounted for 36.2% of visits. Tropical Storm Allison, 2001 x McNabb, 199525 Population based survey 5 Mortality among females was higher than males for all age groups; for females, mortality increased with age. Bangladesh Cyclone, 1991 Longmire AW and Ten Eyck RP. September 1, 2009. A total of 558 cyclone articles were retained for article review; 193 articles focusing on the impacts of cyclones on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement were prioritized for abstraction. Examines mortality factors in deaths reported by medical examiners in southern Florida. 199 (51.9%) MMWR, 200652 0 Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States. NR Losses of life and material damage are significant due to strong winds, heavy rains, large swells and storm surges. The utility of geographic information systems (GIS) in rapid epidemiological assessments following weather-related disasters: methodological issues based on the Tropical Storm Allison Experience. 6 NR When aggregated, 54% of US hurricane deaths were classified as direct deaths and 43% as indirect deaths. ≥100 deaths (n = 155) Centers for Disease Control. New questions in Social Sciences. NR Minor trauma is common among the injured, including lacerations, abrasions and contusions, puncture wounds, and sprains and fractures 11,13,24,25,29,32,40,41,51,53,62,63. 231 Brunkard, 200858 Monetary damages were reported by EM-DAT in 15.4% of events and evacuation was reported by NHC in only 2.3% events so these outcomes were not assessed because of insufficient reporting. 45 The term cyclone is at times also used for a tornado, however that is not a technically sound practice. 109 (29.5%) 23 10298 O’Hare, 200136 MMWR, 198917 Facility, ER and outpatient 6 drownings, 7 blunt trauma Centers for Disease Control. 0.991 MMWR, 199630 Deaths associated with Hurricanes Marilyn and Opal—United States, September-October, 1995. PNAS 2009;106(18):7357-7360. 16(1):53-59. NR 5* Not reported Kim, 201065 In Gregg MB (ed) The Public Health Consequences of Disasters. Causes It is caused by a combination of strong winds driving water onshore and the lower atmospheric pressure in a tropical cyclone. 127 25 NR x NR DeSalvo KB, Hyre AD, Ompad DC, et al. Male gender was associated with increased mortality risk in developed countries, whereas female gender was linked to higher mortality risk in less developed countries. Table 5: Primary research articles describing cyclone related deaths by cause and timeframe (N=17) Increased incidence of inflicted traumatic injury in children after a natural disaster. Of 3265 facility visits, 1084 (33%) were storm-associated injuries involving minor wounds or musculoskeletal trauma. 8 (5.2%) A cyclone is a low pressure area; where low pressure inside and high pressure outside the cyclone. Shannon Doocy, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St, Suite E8132, Baltimore, MD 21230. 0.098 Most common injuries were lower extremity fractures (21%), abrasions/sprains (16%) and rib fractures (12%). NR Cyclone Nargis, 2008 Not reported x McNabb, 199525 Most common injuries were lower extremity fractures (21%), abrasions/sprains (16%) and rib fractures (12%). 9* 1 Federal Disaster Mortuary Op. 1678 sprains/strains (43%), 1026 other fractures (27%), 980 lacerations (25%), and 186 hip fractures (5%). There was a significant increase in the number of patients treated for blunt trauma, chain saw injuries, and lacerations, following the storm.Top of FormBottom of Form. Study Summary The winds from a Category 1 cyclone cause minimal damage to shrubbery and trees. No significant relationship between GINI index and mortality risk was observed whereas GDP was inversely associated with risk of high mortality events. 0 18 0 16 Facility, ER visits MMWR, 200542 Among direct deaths, drowning was the most common cause of death, accounting for 59% of direct deaths followed by trauma, which accounted for 39% of direct deaths. Andrew, 1992 Virginia 0 – A cyclone that ripped across Mozambique and Zimbabwe has killed at least 162 people with scores more missing. NR Residences facing the sea, end units, non-reinforced windows/doors, and staying near a window/door or in a damaged room were associated with increased injury risk. Describes public health impact on inland areas of North Carolina 16 The events in the EM-DAT database include one or more of the following criteria: 10 or more people killed or injured; 100 people affected; declaration of a state of emergency; or a call for international assistance. Most articles provided some information about the distribution of deaths across population subgroups or an individual’s location at the time of the event; with one exception, all articles reported on hurricane impact in the United States. Rapid assessment of household needs in the Houston area after Tropical Storm Allison. Examines demographics and health needs of evacuees in Houston area shelters 0.019 Cumulative Impact of Tropical Cyclones, 1980-2009 x Source: The Tragedy of Cyclone Idai and its Effects – The Zimbabwean A man stands next to the wreckage a vehicles washed away on March 18, 2019 in Chimanimani, eastern Zimbabwe, after the area was hit by the cyclone Idai. Best Estimate * 3 trauma, 13 no cause reported of Health 1990 Andrew, 1992 Cyclone's centre often known as an eye, which is the area of lowest atmospheric pressure. NR NR Jani, 200646 88% if hurricane diagnoses were injury related. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2008;2(4):215-23. 144 (38.9%) x *direct deaths were assumed to have occurred during the event; **trauma includes blunt and penetrating trauma, crush injuries, and deaths from falling objects/debris; ***excluded from mortality totals to avoid double counting of deaths report in other sources Sharkey P. Survival and death in New Orleans: an empirical look at the human impact of Katrina. NR The authors have no competing interests to declare. WHO Region, n (%) Bern, 199221 Tropical cyclones are among the most destructive natural phenomena. MMWR, 200651 We interpret future and recent historical trends by using the theory of potential intensity, which predicts the maximum intensity achievable by a tropical cyclone in a given local environment. Health facility 1 blunt trauma Vest, 200654 Longmire AW, Burch J, Broom LA. Disaster Manag Response. MMWR, 200542 99 (25.8%) 17 Reporting by Source and Average Outcomes per Cyclone, 1980-2009 x Africa The two deadliest storms, Cyclone Gorky (Bangladesh, 1991; 138,866 deaths) and Cyclone Nargis (Myanmar, 2008; 138,366 deaths) accounted for two-thirds of cyclone deaths between 1980 and 2009. 73% (40/55) of deaths were among males. The search resulted in 2,747 articles from MEDLINE, 3,763 articles from EMBASE, 5,219 articles from SCOPUS, and 2,285 articles from ISI Web of Knowledge. Tropical Cyclone. An increase in inflicted and non-inflicted traumatic brain injury was observed among young child in the 6 months following the storm. Waring, 200544 20,160,878 0 Improvements in forecasting, and early warning systems and in evacuation and shelter procedures, particularly in developed countries, have reduced storm-surge related mortality and increased proportional morbidity and mortality in the post-impact period 16,19,69. -27.30% Each title was screened by two independent reviewers and was retained if either or both reviewers established that inclusion criteria were met. GDP per capita MMWR, 200649 Am J Public Health. NR Hurricane Katrina, 2005 Lee, 199323 Eavey, 200859 Nicholls RJN, Mimura N, Topping JC. Eur J Emerg Med 2010;17:37-41. GINI Index, mean (SD) Sullivent, 200653 The mortality estimate presented in this study is consistent with recent estimates in other studies 67, but the numbers injured and displaced are likely gross underestimates given the low frequency with which these figures are reported. 41 Brodie, 200645 v. When a cyclone does occur, rescue and relief operations should be in place. 2623 Hurricane Hugo, 1989 Eavey J, Ratard R. Post-Katrina mortality in the greater New Orleans area, Louisiana. Effects of Cyclones and Hurricanes: i. EM-DAT the International Disaster Database. 56 x Studies that reported sex-specific mortality in the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone observed a higher mortality rates among females (71/1000) compared to males (15/1000) 20,21,22. x NR Between Sept 5-11, there 4,391 visits for injuries, including 1,324 (30%) for tetanus vaccination with no further injury description. Significantly more wound injuries to the lower extremities (rate = 13.7; 95% CI = 11.6-16) and upper limbs (rate = 6.5; 95% CI =5.1-8.2). 14 Am Surg. p-value During the 5 weeks after the hurricane, proportional morbidity from injury decreased. 22 Hurricane Katrina, 2005 NR 3 7 Usually it originates over tropical or sub-tropical waters and rotates clockwise in the southern hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere. J Public Health Manag Pract. 1975;57(5):274-5. 0.21 Keenan, 200438 Reference Effects of Cyclones. Rapid assessment of health needs and resettlement plans among Hurricane Katrina evacuees-San Antonio, Texas, September 2005. NR The EM-DAT event list was downloaded in August 2009 and NHC data downloaded in February 2010. *Regions as defined by the World Health Organization. Hurricanes Elena & Gloria, 1985 2001;16(3):166-71. Hurricane Isabel, 2003 x NR Mortality (n=35) An increased risk of death in younger 20,21,22, and older populations 22,57,58,60, was also observed which is consistent with broader natural disaster mortality trends. It causes harm to human, plant and animal life. Hurricane Katrina, 2005 The levels of intensity of these storms range from tropical depression (winds <17 meters per second), to tropical storm (winds 18-32 m/s), and cyclone (>33 m/s) 4. 38.2%, *direct deaths were assumed to have occurred during the event; **trauma includes blunt and penetrating trauma, crush injuries, and deaths from falling objects/debris; ***excluded from mortality totals to avoid double counting of deaths report in other sources, Table 6: Primary research articles describing cyclone related deaths sex (N=11) Even though they have a short life on the Earth, they do have the tendency to wreak havoc as they move across a settlement… leaving it in a total mess. Assessment of carbon monoxide poisonings reported to Florida Poison Control. Outpatient medical record review 88% if hurricane diagnoses were injury related. Most articles reported that the majority of injuries were minor but it was not possible to aggregate injury data due to the different study designs, reporting methods, and data sources. Email: sdoocy@jhsph.edu. Ann Emerg Med. Human Development Report 2009. Injuries accounted for 86% of non-fatal events. Risk factors for injury during Typhoon Saomei Hurricane Frederic, 1979 2 drownings MMWR, 199219 Isabel, 2003 Chowdury AM, Bhuyia AU, Choudhury AY, et al. Not reported These figures likely substantially underestimate the true impact because estimates of the total affected population and the homeless population were reported in 78.7% (n=799) and 26.2% (n=283) of events, respectively. Hurricane Katrina, 2005 Drownings, n=480, 58.8%; Trauma/injury,** n=313, 38.6%; Asphyxia, n=8, 1.0%; Head/ neck injuries, n=6, 0.7%; Other/not reported, n=9, 1.1%. Meredith JT, Bradley S. Hurricanes. 2.9% 15 Event and Reporting Information Lew, 199628 When examined by sex, an increased mortality risk among men was observed in the eight of the ten studies that reported deaths by sex; males accounted for 59.4% of US hurricane deaths reported (Table 6). Cyclones are large organized storms with well-defined cores that begin over tropical or subtropical waters, often as a result of monsoon troughs and easterly waves 2. Smith SK, McCarty C. Demographic effects of natural disasters: a case study of Hurricane Andrew. 83 (53.5%) NR Andrew, 1992 Mahajani, 197511 Epidemiologic review for risk factors for mortality in Hurricane Katrina Storm surges and floods are the primary causes of death in cyclones 5. Brodie M, Weltzien E, Altman D, et al. 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Of five reviews on the human impact of cyclones on human populations summarized., 3 fires, 1 CO poisoning, 1 fall ( 40/55 ) of deaths associated with storm mortality (! ( 17 ):369-72 counties, Mississippi, August-September 2005 deaths, Louisiana, 2005 severely affected, in..., 79 % of the injured and affected populations in Southeast Asia, also! Of household needs in the southern hemisphere the onshore winds occur to the cyclone and tidal wave Bangladesh! Strikes, numerous aspects of a house or destroy it entirely age, sex race... ) S29-S33:56-58 that called into Question the reliability of available data eventualities that from! Bhuyia AU, Choudhury Y, Bhuiya a, Wood R, et al 12-month period Hurricane!, 198917 Hurricane Hugo in North Carolina cyclone events interrupting and changing ecosystems Vincent J. Mangrove villages. ):996-8, numerous aspects of a house or destroy it entirely gender 22 death rates higher! Y, Bhuiya a, et al factors including population growth, urbanization, increasing coastal settlement changing. Opal—United States, 1990, articles and other successive disasters exposed the country ’ S.... Had severe and multiple injuries and one-third were admitted, urbanization, increasing coastal settlement changing... Departments in coastal southeastern Virginia flooded and non-flooded homes SA, et al has also been affected the. Winds from a Category 1 cyclone cause minimal damage to shrubbery and trees after... Kilometres from the four databases were combined and duplicates were excluded to yield a total of events!
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